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3io        HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION

plan had to be considerably modified. The greatest success was
achieved with the younger children, for whom the method of
learning by means of games, pictures, and conversation was most
suitable. The results were less satisfactory with the older children.
But the whole experiment was foredoomed to failure by reason of
Basedow's own limitations. He was a man of ill-balanced mind,
better fitted to conceivejyrand schemesj.han to_carry them_out
He could neither work steadily himself, nor exerasiTthe self
restraint necessary to make use of the services of the splendid
assistants whom the ideals of the Philanthropinum attracted to
the institution. The consequence was that things went from bad
to worse, till finally in 1784 Basedow severed his connection with
it altogether, and it passed into other hands. But the reorgani-
zation then effected came too late, and in 1793 the Philanthropinum
silently disappeared with all the fair promises of its beginnings
unfulfilled.

Curiously enough, Basedow's personal failure did nothing to
check the progress of the philanthropinist movement. Philan-
thropinums, both great and small, sprang up in all directions
in Germany and Switzerland under the direction of the men who
had assisted him in Dessau, and other enthusiasts for the new
pedagogy. Many of these shared the defects and the fate of the
original Philanthropinum, but once again failure proved the pre-
cursor to enduring success. This was especially true in the case
of Joachim Heinrich Campe (1746-1818), who was called from the
headship of a philanthropinic school to be Councillor of Education
in Brunswick. Having failed to establish a school system indepen-
dent of the Church, he retired from active participation in educa-
tional work, and devoted himself to expounding the principles of
the movement in collaboration with other philanthropinists, in a
monumental work in sixteen volumes entitled General Revision of
the Whole System of Schools and of Education (1785-1791). Campe
was a man of good sense and judgment with a clear view of the
interdependence of theory and practice, and his writings did much
to disentangle what was of real value in philanthropinism from
the mass of unpractical and ill-considered suggestions to which
it had given rise. One way and another, with writings like those
of Campe and the self-denying zeal of the best of Basedow's
followers, the new ideals increased in influence in spite of the
decadence of the institutions created for their demonstration.